What You’ll Want to Have In Your Baby’s First Aid Kit

Last updated on July 19th, 2017 at 11:20 am

More than 1 million children a year are involved in an accident in the home. Most aren’t serious, but it’s sensible to make sure your first aid box contains the essentials.

Choose a waterproof, durable box that’s easy to carry. It’s much easier to take the box to the child than the child to the box. The box should have a childproof lock and be tall enough to carry bottles of lotion.

Keep the box out of the reach of children, but handy for adults. You don’t want to be hunting for your first aid kit when a child is injured and frightened.

Either buy a first aid box, which is green with a white cross**, or, if making up your own box, write “First Aid” on it so that, if you aren’t around, other people know what it is. If someone else is caring for your children, let them know where the kit is kept.

First aid manual

An easy-to-use guide can help refresh your memory when panic and a crying child make it hard to remember what to do. Or you could print out a first aid guide and keep it with your first aid box.

Painkillers and babies

Make sure you have an age-appropriate painkiller, such as paracetamol (*acetaminophen) or ibuprofen, which can be used for headaches and fevers. You will also need a measuring spoon or, for younger children, a no-needle dosing syringe. Always follow the dosage instructions on the label.

Dressings for babies

  • Sticking plasters (*Band-aids). Buy them in a variety of sizes for minor cuts, blisters and sore spots.
  • Adhesive tape (*Medical tape). This can hold dressings in place and can also be applied to smaller cuts.
  • Bandages. Crepe (*Wrap compression) bandages are useful for support or holding a dressing in place. Tubular bandages are helpful when a child has strained a joint and needs extra support. You can also buy triangular bandages that can be used for making a sling.
  • Sterile gauze dressings. These are good for covering larger sore areas and cuts.

Antiseptic cream or spray

Antiseptic cream or spray can be applied to cuts, grazes or minor burns after cleaning to help prevent infection. Some may also contain a mild local anaesthetic to numb the pain.

Antihistamine cream

This can reduce swelling and soothe insect bites and stings.

Thermometer

  • Digital thermometers. Digital thermometers are quick to use, accurate and can be used under the armpit (always use the thermometer under the armpit with children under five). Hold your child’s arm against his or her body and leave the thermometer in place for the time stated in the manufacturer’s instructions.
  • Ear (or tympanic) thermometers. Ear thermometers are put in the child’s ear. They take the child’s temperature in one second and do not disturb the child, but they’re expensive. Ear thermometers may give low readings when not correctly placed in the ear, so read the manufacturer’s instructions carefully and make sure you understand how the thermometer works.
  • Strip-type thermometers. Strip-type thermometers that you hold on your child’s forehead are not an accurate way of taking their temperature. They show the temperature of the skin, not the body.
  • Mercury-in-glass thermometers. Mercury-in-glass thermometers are no longer available to buy**. They can break, releasing small shards of glass and highly poisonous mercury. If your child is exposed to mercury, get medical advice immediately.

Calamine lotion

This can help to soothe itching irritated skin, rashes (including chickenpox) and sunburn. There are gels and mousses available for chickenpox rashes as well.

Baby first aid accessories

  • Pair of scissors for cutting clothes, and also plasters and tape to size.
  • Tweezers to remove thorns and splinters.
  • Ice packs or gel packs can be kept in the fridge and applied to bumps and bruises to relieve swelling. A packet of frozen peas is just as good, but wrap it in a clean tea towel before applying it to skin. Direct contact with ice can cause a “cold burn”.
  • Saline solution and an eye bath. This is useful for washing specks of dust or foreign bodies out of sore eyes.

Antiseptic wipes

Antiseptic wipes are a handy way to clean cuts and grazes and help prevent infection. To use them, take a fresh wipe and clean the wound, gently working away from the centre to remove dirt and germs.

Remember to keep your first aid box up to date. Replace items when stocks have been used and check use-by dates of all medicines. Throw away anything past its use-by date. You can take any out-of-date medicines to a pharmacy to be disposed of safely.

Editor’s Note: *clarification provided for our US readers.

** U.S. First Aid Kits are often white with a red cross or red with a white cross

** Mercury-in-glass thermometers are not available for purchase in the U.K. and in a number of States within the U.S., however they may still be purchased legally in some States.  For more specific information about individual State’s mercury laws, click here.

 





Child Health & Safety News 7/10: Body Safety Rules for Kids

Last updated on July 18th, 2017 at 12:54 am

twitter thumbIn this week’s Child Safety News: Texting Acronyms Every Parent Should Know bit.ly/2sjO6nq

Welcome to Pediatric Safety’s weekly “Child Health & Safety News Roundup”- a recap of the past week’s child health and safety news headlines from around the world. Each day we use social media to communicate relevant and timely health and safety information to the parents, medical professionals and caregivers who follow us. Occasionally we overlook something, but overall we think we’re doing a pretty good job of keeping you informed.  Still, quite a bit happens every day – so to make sure you don’t miss anything, we offer you a recap of this week’s top 15 events & stories.

  • How to Talk About Obesity With Loved Ones (Especially Kids) bit.ly/2uZFlQw 2017-07-09
  • ‘Snap Map’ App Could Be Dangerous For Kids, Authorities Say bit.ly/2sTYIOz a predator or bully can easily locate your child 2017-07-09
  • Do Fathers Treat Toddler Girls Differently Than Boys? bit.ly/2uziIms interesting study… 2017-07-08
  • Pediatric Procedure Kits to Feature Sterile Stuffed Animals | AAP approved 🙂 bit.ly/2tXd68Q 2017-07-07
  • We must address young patients’ pain and suffering from the start of their cancer journey bit.ly/2uvUREw 2017-07-07

PedSafe Child Health & Safety News Headline of the Week:
5 Body Safety Rules All Kids Need To Know bit.ly/2uqWanY with downloadable poster

  • Saturday July 8th, DESPICABLE ME 3 is Sensory Friendly at AMCzpr.io/Pdvx3 2017-07-07
  • Blood of SIDS infants contains high levels of serotonin -new NIH study. bit.ly/2uHzuz5 not definitive, but a start… 2017-07-06
  • Can a Toothbrush Make You (or Your Family) Sick? – Thurs Time Capsule 07/11 bit.ly/2scCjqo 2017-07-06
  • Canadian baby given health card without male/female sex designation cnn.it/2tK1Rzr 2017-07-05
  • Meningitis cases a reminder to keep an eye on NZ kids’ health bit.ly/2tJFxGk 2017-07-05
  • Reflux in Babies: Symptoms, Causes, Treatment and Advicezpr.io/PdDQP 2017-07-05
  • The Fine Line Between Bullying and Bad Behavior bit.ly/2tNiRWz worth reading 2017-07-04
  • 6 Parenting Behaviors That Hurt Kids: How to Recognize & Fix Them zpr.io/PdNKF 2017-07-03

How to Include The Family Dog In Summer Trips & Activities

Last updated on June 21st, 2018 at 06:12 pm

Right around Christmas time, I wrote an article about safely traveling for the holidays with your pet. We touched on many things from car safety (using proper harnesses and seat-belts and being in the back seat) to night-safety guidelines and which ‘tools’ were the best to use and which ones to leave at home (with respect to leashes and collars). If you missed this article, here is the link so you can get up to speed on some important safety information.

While all of those same suggestions apply now, there are other things to take into consideration during the hot summer months if you’re planning to include the dog in your activities. Whether you are going for just a day trip, or an extended vacation by car or RV, here are some things you are going to want to keep in mind for safety this summer.

For Prolonged Car Rides, RV Trips AND “Detours” Along The Way:

  • Never leave your pet in the car: Just like you’d never leave your child unattended in the car, never leave your dog in one either. It heats up and becomes a furnace very quickly… and since most pets have a ‘built-in’ fur coat, they can over-heat that much faster! Oftentimes we think ‘we’re only running in quickly, they’ll be fine just for those few minutes’. But let’s face it, when traveling with kids, those few minutes can turn into much longer than you expected just trying to corral them back into the car! And don’t forget that Fido might need a bathroom break and to stretch his legs too!
  • Sight-seeing and tourist attractions along the way: If you plan on doing some sight-seeing along the way, map out your trip in advance, and figure out the spots you want to stop at and go sightseeing.
    • If they are indoor spots (like a museum) or a theme or water park, unless your dog is a Service Dog, they are generally not permitted inside. Do your research way in advance, and get some suggestions on local kennels or pet-sitters in those immediate areas, and find out what their availability is, and if you need to make a reservation. *Note: Many of the theme parks such as Disney and Epcot Center have on-site kennels.  This way your time with the kids is not rushed and you know your pooch is safe while you enjoy some quality family time together.
    • If they are outdoor spots, like walking or nature trails, a lake to swim in, or picnic spots, and your dog is welcome there (call in advance just to make sure this is still the case) make sure you bring plenty of fresh water for them as well as for yourself and the kids. You never know what kind of bacteria or microorganisms might be living in any specific lake or body of water, so providing frequent drinks for your pet will reduce their ‘natural instinct’ to drink from any source available if they are thirsty. Many pet stores (and Amazon) offer collapsible water dishes that even have a carabineer to attach to your belt-loop.

Full Day Outings

  • A full day of hiking: If you will be hiking for several hours, you’ve probably packed snacks for the kids. Make sure to bring some food for your dog to snack on too. Think about it- after an hour, we often feel hungry… not necessarily for a full meal, but a quick ‘pick-me-up snack’. Your dog is no different. So make sure you bring some extra kibble along, or some milk bones for them to snack on. Avoid training treats and small chewy snacks… as they are very high in sodium content, and will make your dog dehydrate faster, and be thirstier. Another type of collapsible dish offers food AND water capacity
  • Be aware of signs / symptoms of heat exhaustion AND heat stroke for both your children and your pets…

  • Hot pavement and rocky terrain: Another thing to take into consideration when hiking with the kids and pets…. Consider for a moment all the reasons you wouldn’t have your child hike barefoot. Those same reasons apply plus a few more.  On top of the potential for possible cuts from rocks, and burns from hot pavement (some trails are partially paved), while dogs primarily ‘sweat’ through excessive panting, they also have a small amount of sweat glands that are prominently in the paw pads. If the pads get burns, or dry out and crack, it can cause your dog to overheat that much faster. Besides the boots your dog can wear for winter or rain, some new ‘breathable boots’ boots were created with a ‘cool down’ feature which will protect them from overheating as well as prevent cuts and scrapes.  I also like to use a product called ‘Musher’s Secret’. This is a wax that goes on their paws and protects them from the heat.
  • Sunburn: Beyond packing water for everyone (kids and dogs) and making sure they get shade, many people do not realize that their dogs are just as susceptible to sunburns – and even skin cancer – as their kids are! Here is a link to a very informative article to learn more about which dogs are more prone to sunburns, which areas on the dog’s body are more apt to be affected, how to treat it, and more importantly, how to avoid it…and don’t forget to bring sunscreen for your kid’s delicate skin too!
  • Keep your dog on leash at all times: I know, I know…. The point of being out in nature is to explore and be free! And it is fun to give them the chance to be free and watch them explore new things! But what if the ‘new thing’ they want to explore can potentially be dangerous? Like another dog that comes by that is not so friendly? Or a wild animal that they decide to suddenly chase after? Or worse: A child who is AFRAID of dogs, that does not know your dog is a sweet and friendly outgoing mutt that just wants to say hello? Oftentimes, in their panic, they run, and can get hurt. I will be the first to say that as a professional dog trainer, my dog has an amazing recall…. But he is still a dog… not a robot! This is not his every day environment…. and when new and exciting things are all around him, can I 100% guarantee that he will listen to me when I call him back? Nope – not unless I have him on a leash. And please…. Leave the retractable leashes at home! The purpose of the leash is to give you full control at all times. Retractable leashes cannot guarantee that. I recommend nothing longer than a 6 foot leash. One last comment on this: If your dog is friendly and sweet with those he knows but not very social with unknown dogs and people, they may not be a great candidate for hiking trails. Your dog will smell, hear, and see others long before you do. This is your vacation, but others want to enjoy a peaceful quiet walk on their vacation too! A dog that barks or yaps incessantly, or growls and snaps at others can ruin your vacation and spoil it for others too! Be aware of your dog’s temperament and be considerate of others.
  • Vaccinations and flea and tick preventative: It is important to remember that this is not your backyard… and diseases can be found in many species of wild animals… disease that can immediately affect and harm your dog: and ultimately harm your kids. (see my article about how regular vet visits can help keep your child safe….parts one and two). Also, Make sure your dog is on flea and tick preventative!! Last thing you want are those critters ‘hitching a ride’ on your pet or your kids!! Make sure you do a nightly check of both the kids and pets after a long day of hiking to make sure they are both free of any free-loading cling-ons!!
  • Dog friendly parks: I am going to add one last link that I found to be very informative. A ‘dog owner’s guide to visiting National Parks’. It has some great information on some of the National parks and their rules and regulation regarding dogs.

And finally, I’ll end this by saying there are many pet-friendly places to take your whole family (dog included) this summer, but it is vital that you really know your dog and pay close attention to his body language. Unlike your older child who can verbally communicate with you that they are tired and/or hungry… or a baby who gets cranky to convey the same message, your dog cannot tell you what they need or what they are feeling. Being aware of them at all times will enable you to determine when they are enjoying their time with the family, and when they have had enough and need a break. A grumpy tired dog can quickly become an unpredictable one. Don’t forget to do your research in advance, make whatever plans and reservations you need to make, and this will ensure that you, your family, your dog, and others around you will all have a safe and enjoyable summer together!

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Reference: Information for the Heat Exhaustion, Heat Stroke charts were compiled from the following sources

Sensory Friendly Screening of THE HOUSE, Tuesday Night at AMC

Last updated on July 12th, 2017 at 10:31 pm

AMC Entertainment (AMC) has expanded their Sensory Friendly Films program in partnership with the Autism Society. This Tuesday evening, families affected by autism or other special needs have the opportunity to view a sensory friendly screening of The House, a film that may appeal to older audiences on the autism spectrum.

As always, the movie auditoriums will have their lights turned up and the sound turned down. Families will be able to bring in snacks to match their child’s dietary needs (i.e. gluten-free, casein-free, etc.), there are no advertisements or previews before the movie and it’s totally acceptable to get up and dance, walk, shout, talk to each other…and even sing – in other words, AMC’s “Silence is Golden®” policy will not be enforced during movie screenings unless the safety of the audience is questioned.

Does it make a difference? Absolutely! Imagine …no need to shhhhh your child. No angry stares from other movie goers. Many parents think twice before bringing a child to a movie theater. Add to that your child’s special needs and it can easily become cause for parental panic. But on this one day a month, for this one screening, everyone is there to relax and have a good time, everyone expects to be surrounded by kids – with and without special needs – and the movie theater policy becomes “Tolerance is Golden“.

AMC and the Autism Society will be showing The House, sensory friendly tomorrow, Tuesday, July 11th at 7pm (local time). Tickets are $4 to $6 depending on the location. To find a theatre near you, here is a list of AMC theatres nationwide participating in this fabulous program (note: to access full list, please scroll to the bottom of the page).

Coming In July:  Spiderman Homecoming (Sat, 7/22); War for the Planet of the Apes (Tues, 7/25);

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Editor’s note: Although The House has been chosen by AMC and the Autism Society for a Tuesday Sensory Friendly screening, we do want parents to know that it is rated R by the Motion Picture Association of America for language throughout, sexual references, drug use, some violence and brief nudity.  As always, please check the IMDB Parents Guide for a more detailed description of this film to determine if it is right for you and your family.

Saturday July 8th, DESPICABLE ME 3 is Sensory Friendly at AMC

Last updated on July 10th, 2017 at 11:29 am

New sensory friendly logoSince 2007, AMC Entertainment (AMC) and the Autism Society have teamed up to bring families affected by autism and other special needs “Sensory Friendly Films” every month – a wonderful opportunity to enjoy fun new films in a safe and accepting environment.

The movie auditoriums will have their lights turned up and the sound turned down. Families will be able to bring in snacks to match their child’s dietary needs (i.e. gluten-free, casein-free, etc.), there are no advertisements or previews before the movie and it’s totally acceptable to get up and dance, walk, shout, talk to each other…and even sing – in other words, AMC’s “Silence is Golden®” policy will not be enforced during movie screenings unless the safety of the audience is questioned.

Does it make a difference? Absolutely! Imagine …no need to shhhhh your child. No angry stares from other movie goers. Many parents think twice before bringing a child to a movie theater. Add to that your child’s special needs and it can easily become cause for parental panic. But on this one day a month, for this one screening, everyone is there to relax and have a good time, everyone expects to be surrounded by kids – with and without special needs – and the movie theater policy becomes “Tolerance is Golden“.

Families affected by autism or other special needs can view a sensory friendly screening of Despicable Me 3 on Saturday, July 8th at 10am (local time). Tickets are $4 to $6 depending on the location. To find a theatre near you, here is a list of AMC theatres nationwide participating in this fabulous program (note: to access full list, please scroll to the bottom of the page).

Coming in July:  The House (Tues, 7/11); Spiderman Homecoming (Sat, 7/22); War for the Planet of the Apes (Tues 7/25)

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Editor’s note: Although Despicable Me 3 has been chosen by the AMC and the Autism Society as this month’s Sensory Friendly Film, we do want parents to know that it is rated PG by the Motion Picture Association of America for action and rude humor.  As always, please check the IMDB Parents Guide for a more detailed description of this film to determine if it is right for you and your family.

Reflux in Babies: Symptoms, Causes, Treatment and Advice

Last updated on July 12th, 2017 at 10:32 pm

Babies often bring up milk during or shortly after feeding – this is known as possetting or reflux.

It’s different from vomiting in babies, where a baby’s muscles forcefully contract.

Reflux is just your baby effortlessly spitting up whatever they’ve swallowed.

It’s natural to worry something is wrong with your baby if they’re bringing up their feeds. But reflux is very common and will usually pass by the time your baby is a year old.

This page covers:

Signs and symptoms

When to get medical advice

Causes

Tests

Treatments and advice

Signs and symptoms of reflux in babies

Signs that your baby may have reflux include:

  • spitting up milk during or after feeds – this may happen several times a day
  • feeding difficulties – such as refusing feeds, gagging or choking
  • persistent hiccups or coughing
  • excessive crying, or crying while feeding
  • frequent ear infections

When to get medical advice

Reflux isn’t usually a cause for concern and you don’t normally need to get medical advice if your baby seems otherwise happy and healthy, and is gaining weight appropriately.

But contact your midwife, health visitor or GP (*pediatrician) if reflux starts after six months of age, continues beyond one year, or your baby has any of the following problems:

  • spitting up feeds frequently or refusing feeds
  • coughing or gagging while feeding
  • frequent projectile vomiting
  • excessive crying or irritability
  • green or yellow vomit, or vomiting blood
  • blood in their poo or persistent diarrhoea
  • a swollen or tender tummy
  • a high temperature (fever) of 38C (100.4F) or above
  • not gaining much weight, or losing weight
  • arching their back during or after a feed, or drawing their legs up to their tummy after feeding

These can be signs of an underlying cause and may mean your baby needs tests and treatment.

Causes of reflux in babies

It’s normal for some babies to have reflux. It usually just occurs because a baby’s food pipe (oesophagus) is still developing.

It normally stops by the time a baby is a year old, when the ring of muscle at the bottom of their oesophagus fully develops and stops stomach contents leaking out.

In a small number of cases, reflux can be a sign of a more serious problem, such as:

  • gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) – a long-term form of reflux where stomach contents are able to rise up and irritate the oesophagus
  • a cows’ milk allergy – this can also cause a rash, vomiting and diarrhoea; many babies will eventually grow out of it and can be treated by removing cows’ milk from their diet
  • a blockage – rarely, reflux may occur because the oesophagus is blocked or narrowed, or there’s a blockage in the stomach and small intestine

Tests that may be needed

Most babies with reflux don’t need any tests. It can usually be diagnosed based on your baby’s symptoms.

In rare cases, the following tests may be recommended if your baby’s reflux is severe or persistent:

  • endoscopy – a narrow, flexible tube with a camera at the end is passed down their throat to look for any problems
  • barium swallow – this where your baby is given a drink containing a substance called barium before an X-ray is taken; the barium shows up on the X-ray and helps highlight any problems in their digestive system

These tests will normally be carried out in hospital.

Treatments and advice for reflux in babies

Reflux doesn’t usually require treatment if your baby is putting on weight and seems otherwise well.

The following treatments and advice may be offered if your baby appears to be in distress or their reflux has a specific, identified cause.

Feeding advice

Your midwife or health visitor may want to check how you feed your baby and suggest some changes to help with their reflux.

These changes might include:

  • burping your baby regularly throughout feeding
  • giving your baby smaller but more frequent feeds
  • holding your baby upright for a period of time after feeding
  • using thicker milk formulas that are less likely to be brought back up – these are available to buy without a prescription, but only try them if advised to by a healthcare professional

If your doctor thinks your baby could have a cows’ milk allergy, they may suggest trying special formula milk that doesn’t contain cows’ milk.

Read more general breastfeeding advice and bottle feeding advice.

Medication

Babies with reflux don’t usually need to take any medication, but sometimes the following medicines may be offered if your doctor feels the problem is severe:

  • alginates – these form a protective barrier over stomach contents, stopping them travelling up and irritating the oesophagus
  • proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and H2-receptor antagonists – these reduce the level of acid in the stomach, so the stomach contents don’t irritate the oesophagus as much

Alginates may be used if changing the way you feed your baby doesn’t help. PPIs and H2-receptor antagonists may be recommended if your baby appears to be in discomfort or is refusing feeds.

Surgery

In a very small number of babies – most often, babies with serious underlying conditions such as cerebral palsy – an operation may be needed to treat GORD by tightening the ring of muscle at the bottom of the oesophagus.

Surgery may also be needed if there’s a blockage or narrowing in the oesophagus, stomach or small intestine.

 
Editor’s Note: *clarification provided for our US readers.