Currently browsing teen health posts

How To Prevent and Treat Teen Smelly Feet

Smelly feet aren’t fun for anyone, but there is an effective, simple and cheap treatment that you can use at home which will banish foot odour within a week.

Medically known as bromodosis, stinky feet are a common year-round problem.

The main cause is sweaty feet combined with wearing the same shoes every day.

Why feet sweat

Anyone can get sweaty feet, regardless of the temperature or time of year. But teenagers and pregnant women are especially prone because hormonal changes make them sweat more.

You’re also more likely to have foot perspiration if you’re on your feet all day, if you’re under a lot of stress or if you have a medical condition called hyperhidrosis, which makes you sweat more than usual. Fungal infections, such as athlete’s foot, can also lead to bad foot odour.

According to podiatrist, Lorraine Jones, feet become smelly if sweat soaks into shoes and they don’t dry before you wear them again.

Bacteria on the skin break down sweat as it comes from the pores. A cheesy odour is released as the sweat decomposes.

“Your feet sweat into your shoes all day so they get damp and bacteria start to grow. The bacteria continue to breed once you’ve taken your shoes off, especially if you put them in a dark cupboard. Then, when you put your shoes back on the next day, even if you’ve just had a shower, putting your feet into still damp shoes creates the perfect conditions for the bacteria to thrive – warm, dark and moist.”

How to treat smelly feet

The good news is that there’s a simple, quick, sure-fire solution to smelly feet.

  • Wash your feet with an anti-bacterial soap called Hibiscrub. There are lots of over-the-counter foot hygiene products at your local chemist, but Hibiscrub is the best one.
  • Leave on the Hibiscrub for a couple of minutes, then wash it off.

According to Lorraine, “if you do this twice a day, you’ll definitely banish smelly feet within a week.”

She adds that you shouldn’t use Hibiscrub on your feet if you have broken skin, such as eczema.

Preventing smelly feet

Keeping feet fresh and sweet smelling is all down to good personal hygiene and changing your shoes regularly. To keep feet fresh:

  • Never wear the same pair of shoes two days in a row. Instead, wear different shoes on successive days so they have at least 24 hours to dry out.
  • Make sure teenage boys have two pairs of trainers so that they don’t have to wear the same pair for two or more consecutive days.
  • Wash and dry your feet every day and change your socks (ideally wool or cotton, not nylon) at least once a day.
  • Keep your toenails short and clean and remove any hard skin with a foot file. Hard skin can become soggy when damp, which provides an ideal home for bacteria

If you’re particularly susceptible to sweaty feet, it’s a good idea to:

  • dab between your toes with cotton wool dipped in surgical spirit after a shower or bath – surgical spirit helps dry out the skin between the toes really well – in addition to drying them with a towel
  • use a spray deodorant or antiperspirant on your feet – a normal underarm deodorant or antiperspirant works just as well as a specialist foot product and will cost you less
  • put medicated insoles, which have a deodorising effect, in your shoes
  • try feet-fresh socks – some sports socks have ventilation panels to keep feet dry, and antibacterial socks are impregnated with chemicals to discourage the odour-producing bacteria that feed on sweat
  • wear leather or canvas shoes, as they let your feet breathe, unlike plastic ones
  • wear open-toed sandals in summer and go barefoot at home in the evenings

When to see a doctor

Smelly feet are a harmless problem that generally clears up. Sometimes, however, it can be a sign of a medical condition.

See your GP (*doctor) if simple measures to reduce your foot odour don’t help, or if you’re worried that your level of sweating is abnormally high.

Your doctor can offer you a strong prescription antiperspirant or refer you for a treatment called iontophoresis, which delivers a mild electric current through water to your feet to combat excessive sweating.

Here are more tips on how to look after your feet.

 

Editor’s Note: *clarification provided for our US readers.

NHS Choices logo


From www.nhs.uk





My Teenager Has Mono (Glandular Fever) – Should I Worry?

Glandular fever is a type of viral infection that mostly affects young adults.

It is also known as infectious mononucleosis, or “mono”.

Sick teen girl with cup of teaCommon symptoms include:

While the symptoms of glandular fever can be very unpleasant, most of them should pass within two to three weeks. Fatigue, however, can occasionally last several months.

Read more about the symptoms of glandular fever.

When to seek medical advice

You should contact your GP (*Doctor or Pediatrician) if you suspect that you or your child has glandular fever.

While there is little your GP can do in terms of treatment, they can provide advice and support to help you control your symptoms and reduce the risk of passing the infection on to others.

You should go to your local accident and emergency (A&E) department (*Emergency Room – ER) or dial 999 (*911) for an ambulance if you have glandular fever and you:

  • develop a rasping breath (stridor) or have any breathing difficulties
  • find swallowing fluids difficult
  • develop intense abdominal pain

These symptoms can be a sign of a complication of glandular fever that may need to be treated in hospital.

What causes glandular fever?

Glandular fever is caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). This virus is found in the saliva of infected people and can be spread through:

  • kissing – glandular fever is often referred to as the “kissing disease”
  • exposure to coughs and sneezes
  • sharing eating and drinking utensils, such as cups, glasses and unwashed cutlery

EBV may be found in the saliva of someone who has had glandular fever for several months after their symptoms pass, and some people may continue to have the virus in their saliva on and off for years.

If you have EBV, it’s a good idea to take steps to avoid infecting others while you are ill, such as not kissing other people, but there’s no need no need to avoid all contact with others as the chances of passing on the infection are generally low.

Read more about the causes of glandular fever.

Who is affected?

Glandular fever can affect people of all ages, but most cases affect teenagers and young adults.

Most EBV infections are thought to occur during childhood and cause only mild symptoms, or no symptoms at all.

However, if a person develops an EBV infection during early adulthood, they can develop glandular fever.

Once you have had glandular fever, it is unlikely you will develop it again. This is because people develop lifelong immunity after the initial infection.

How glandular fever is diagnosed

To diagnose glandular fever, your GP will first ask about your symptoms before carrying out a physical examination. They will look for characteristic signs of glandular fever, such as swollen glands, tonsils, liver and spleen.

Your GP may also recommend a blood test to help confirm the diagnosis and rule out infections that can cause similar symptoms, such as cytomegalovirus (CMV)rubellamumps and toxoplasmosis.

How glandular fever is treated

There is no cure for glandular fever, but there are a number of simple treatments and measures that can help reduce the symptoms while you wait for your body to control the infection.

These include:

  • drinking plenty of fluids
  • taking over-the-counter painkillers, such as paracetamol (*acetaminophen) or ibuprofen
  • getting plenty of rest and gradually increasing your activity as your energy levels improve

Occasionally, antibiotics or corticosteroids may be used if you develop complications of glandular fever.

Some people with particularly severe symptoms may need to be looked after in hospital for a few days.

Read more about treating glandular fever.

Possible complications

Complications associated with glandular fever are uncommon, but when they do occur they can be serious. They can include:

  • further infections of other areas of the body, including the brain, liver and lungs
  • severe anaemia (a lack of oxygen-carrying red blood cells)
  • breathing difficulties as a result of the tonsils becoming significantly swollen
  • a ruptured (burst) spleen, which may need to be treated with surgery

Read more about the complications of glandular fever.

Editor’s Note: *clarification provided for our US readers.

NHS Choices logo


From www.nhs.uk





My Son Has Gynaecomastia (Man Boobs) – What Can He Do?

Gynaecomastia (*gynecomastia) (sometimes referred to as “man boobs”) is a common condition that causes boys’ and men’s breasts to swell and become larger than normal. It is most common in teenage boys and older men.

What are the signs of gynaecomastia?

  • Signs vary from a small amount of extra tissue around the nipples to more prominent breasts. It can affect one or both breasts.
  • Sometimes, the breast tissue can be tender or painful, but this isn’t always the case.

What causes gynaecomastia?

Gynaecomastia can have several causes.

Hormone imbalance

Gynaecomastia can be caused by an imbalance between the sex hormones testosterone and oestrogen. Oestrogen causes breast tissue to grow. While all men produce some oestrogen, they usually have much higher levels of testosterone, which stops the oestrogen from causing breast tissue to grow.

If the balance of hormones in the body changes, this can cause a man’s breasts to grow. Sometimes, the cause of this imbalance is unknown.

Obesity

Some growth in breast tissue is not due to extra body fat from being overweight, so losing weight or doing more exercise may not improve the condition. However, a common reason for gynaecomastia is that being very overweight (obese) can increase levels of oestrogen, which can cause breast tissue to grow.

Newborn baby boys

Gynaecomastia can affect newborn baby boys, because oestrogen passes through the placenta from the mother to the baby. This is temporary and will disappear a few weeks after the baby is born.

Puberty

During puberty, boys’ hormone levels vary. If the level of testosterone drops, oestrogen can cause breast tissue to grow. Many teenage boys have some degree of breast enlargement. Gynaecomastia at puberty usually clears up as boys get older and their hormone levels become more stable.

Older age

As men get older, they produce less testosterone. Older men also tend to have more body fat, and this can cause more oestrogen to be produced. These changes in hormone levels can lead to excess breast tissue growth.

Other causes

In rare cases, gynaecomastia can be caused by:

  • side effects of medication – such as anti-ulcer drugs or medication for heart disease
  • illegal drugs – such as cannabis or anabolic steroids
  • drinking too much alcohol
  • a health abnormality – such as kidney failure or liver disease
  • Klinefelter’s syndrome (a rare genetic disorder)
  • lumps or infection in the testicles

Treatment for gynaecomastia

If you’re worried about breast tissue growth, see your GP (*doctor).

If your GP thinks treatment is needed, there are two types of treatment for gynaecomastia:

  • surgery to remove the excess breast tissue
  • medication to adjust a hormone imbalance

Your GP can discuss the treatment options with you. Read more about male breast reduction surgery.

Procedures such as breast reduction surgery are not usually available on the NHS, unless there is a clear medical need for them. For example, if you have had gynaecomastia for a long time, it has not responded to other treatments and it is causing you a lot of distress or pain, your GP may refer you to a plastic surgeon to discuss the possibility of surgery.

Always see your GP if the area is very painful or there is an obvious lump. Sometimes, the lump may need to be removed. Gynaecomastia is not related to breast cancer, but if you’re worried about breast swelling, see a GP.

Read the answers to more questions about men’s health.

Further information:

Editor’s Note: *clarification provided for our US readers.

NHS Choices logo


From www.nhs.uk





Do-It-Yourself Braces: Just Say No and Save Your Child’s Smile

As Do-It-Yourself (DIY) crafts and projects are climbing in popularity among teens, the trend has surprisingly migrated into the field of orthodontics. Believe it or not, teenagers across the United States are taking their smile into their own hands. According to the American Association of Orthodontists, almost 13% of dentists are seeing patients who have tried DIY teeth straightening – most of which have experienced irreversible damage.

In desperate attempts to straighten their smiles, teenagers are resorting to rubber bands, dental floss, fishing line, paper clips, and even homemade retainers. Although these methods can potentially move teeth, dentists everywhere are warning against these dangerous materials.

Initially gaining traction with teens on social media, DIY braces can lead to serious infection and permanent damage in the teeth and gums. Constant pressure, unsupervised by an orthodontic expert, can cause teeth to become extruded or out of socket. Tiny hair rubber bands are known for sliding upward and disappearing into the gums, becoming embedded in the gum tissue.

Many of these cases cannot be repaired, meaning patients who originally tried DIY braces to save time and money are now required to undergo complete oral reconstruction surgery. Overall, patients are paying almost double of the initial cost of orthodontic treatment just to reverse severe damage.

The number of teens attempting DIY braces is so alarming that the American Association of Orthodontists has reissued a public service announcement to warn teenagers of the dangers of this trend.

If you think your child is attempting to straighten his or her smile with DIY braces, put a stop to it immediately and schedule an appointment with your dentist. It could save your child’s smile!

Student Mental Health – How to Get Help When They Need It

Mental health problems are as common among students as they are in the general population.

But it’s not just students who have a diagnosed mental health condition that can benefit from counselling.

Alan Percy, head of counselling at the University of Oxford, says: “A lot of difficulties are not caused by medical problems, but by normal life problems, such as family or relationship issues, or anxiety about their work.

“While these problems are distressing, through counselling we can help students to understand them, and then suggest strategies for dealing with their feelings.”

When to get help

It’s normal to feel down, anxious or stressed from time to time, but if these feelings affect your daily activities, including your studies, or don’t go away after a couple of weeks, get help.

Signs of depression and anxiety include:

  • feeling low
  • feeling more anxious or agitated than usual
  • losing interest in life
  • losing motivation

Some people also:

  • put on or lose weight
  • stop caring about the way they look or about keeping clean
  • do too much work
  • stop attending lectures
  • become withdrawn
  • have sleep problems

Where to go for help

Talk to someone

Telling someone how you feel, whether it’s a friend, counsellor or doctor, may bring an immediate sense of relief.

It’s a good idea to talk to someone you trust first, such as a friend, member of your family or a tutor.

This is especially important if your studies are being affected. Many mild mental health problems can be resolved this way.

University counselling services

Many colleges and most universities have a free and confidential in-house counselling service you can access, with professionally qualified counsellors and psychotherapists.

You can usually find out what they offer and how to make an appointment in the counselling service section of your university’s website. This free service in universities is available to both undergraduates and postgraduates.

Many universities also have a mental health adviser who can help you access the support you need.

As well as counselling or therapy, you may also be entitled to “reasonable adjustments” such as extra time in exams, extensions on coursework, and specialist mental health mentor support.

Student-led services

Many student unions also offer student-led services. Although the students involved aren’t qualified counsellors, you may prefer to talk about problems such as stress and depression with another student.

Online self-help

There are also online self-help services you may like to explore, such as NHS Choices’ Moodzone and the Students Against Depression website.

When to see your GP (* physician)

For more serious or longer-lasting mental health symptoms, see your GP as you may need prescribed treatment or referral to a specialist.

If you have or develop a mental health condition that requires treatment, it’s important to arrange continuity of care between your college doctor and your family GP.

A mental health adviser can support this communication. Your condition may worsen if moving between university and home results in a gap in treatment.

Therapy and counselling

Counselling and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) offers an opportunity to explore the underlying issues of your unhappiness or any worries you have in a safe environment, including helping you develop ways of coping.

As well as university or college counselling services, you might be able to refer yourself for NHS counselling. Search for psychological therapy services** in the UK to find out what’s available in your area.

The University Mental Health Advisers Network (UMHAN)** represents the network of mental health advisers working in higher education dedicated to providing practical support to UK students experiencing mental health difficulties.

Disabled Students’ Allowance (DSA)

At all UK universities, you have the opportunity to apply for a Disabled Students’ Allowance (DSA)**.

Your mental health adviser can help you apply for a DSA, but you will need to provide evidence of a long-term mental health condition.

The DSA pays for:

  • specialist equipment, such as a computer, if you need it because of your mental health condition or another disability
  • non-medical helpers
  • extra travel as a result of your mental health condition or disability
  • other disability-related costs of studying

Even if you decide not to apply for a DSA, the mental health adviser will still be able to let you know what support is available.

Drugs, drink and mental health in students

If you’re feeling low or stressed, you may be tempted to drink more alcohol or relax by smoking cannabis.

Consider how this may make you feel in the longer term though, as your mood could slip, making you feel a lot worse.

Some cannabis users can have unpleasant experiences, including confusion, hallucinationsanxiety and paranoia.

There’s also growing evidence that long-term cannabis use can double your risk of developing a serious mental illness, such as schizophrenia.

Ecstasy and amphetamines can also bring on schizophrenia, and amphetamines can induce other forms of psychosis.

Any underlying mental disorder could be worsened by drug and alcohol use.

Read more articles about drugs.

Editor’s Note: *clarification provided for our US readers.

** Resources in the United States

NHS Choices logo


From www.nhs.uk





Is Your Teenager In An Abusive Relationship? You CAN Help!

Violence can happen in teenage relationships, so make sure you know the signs and can help your child.

Abuse in relationships – including those between teenagers – can happen to men and boys, but it’s much more likely to happen to women and girls. It also happens in same-sex relationships.

Different types of abuse

Physical abuse can include hitting, kicking, punching, slapping, pushing, and pressuring or forcing someone into sexual activity.

Emotional and verbal abuse involves a person:

  • saying things that make their partner feel small or stupid
  • pressuring their partner to do things they don’t want to do, including sexual things
  • checking up on their partner – for instance, by text – all the time to find out where they are and who they’re with
  • threatening to hurt their partner or someone close to their partner, including pets

Warning signs your teen is being abused

Signs of abuse can include your child:

  • no longer hanging out with their circle of friends
  • not doing as well at school, or skipping school altogether
  • constantly checking their phone
  • being withdrawn and quieter than usual
  • being angry and becoming irritable when asked how they’re doing
  • making excuses for their boyfriend or girlfriend
  • having unexplained scratches or bruises
  • showing changes in mood or personality
  • using drugs or alcohol

Warning signs your teen’s partner is abusive

It’s a sign of controlling or violent behaviour if your child’s boyfriend or girlfriend:

  • gets extremely jealous
  • monitors texts, messages, calls and emails, and gets angry if there isn’t an instant response
  • has trouble controlling his or her emotions, particularly anger
  • stops your child seeing or talking with friends and family as much as they’d like
  • uses force during an argument
  • blames others for his or her problems or feelings
  • is verbally abusive
  • shows threatening behaviour towards others

How to help

  • Talk to your child about what’s OK and what’s not in a relationship. Some teenagers believe violence is “just the way things are”, or is “just messing around”.
    • Make sure they understand that violent or controlling behaviour is not OK, and that nobody should put up with it.
  • Some girls believe that if their boyfriend gets jealous or checks up on them, it means he loves them.
    • Let your teenage girl know that this kind of behaviour is not about love or romance, it’s about control and her boyfriend making her behave in the way he wants.
  • Some boys might believe that controlling their girlfriend’s behaviour makes them more of a man.
    • Make sure your teenage boy knows that using violence does not make someone a man.

Talking tips

Before you start the conversation with your teenager, think through what your concerns are.

Consider talking about it confidentially with someone like your GP (*doctor) or a friend. This will help you understand your own feelings so you won’t be too emotional when you talk to your child.

Try not to talk to your teenager in a confrontational way. Say you’re worried about them and ask if everything’s OK.

Even if they don’t talk to you at this point, they might go away and think about things, and talk to you later.

Show your support

Tell your child they can always come to you, no matter what.

Victims of abuse can feel ashamed and believe (wrongly) that the abuse is their fault. Make it clear that being abused is never your child’s fault, and you will help them if they come to you.

You can also tell them about helplines, such as ChildLine (0800 11 11)** or the NSPCC (0808 800 5000)** in the UK, which they can call if they don’t feel they can talk to you.

Editor’s Note: *clarification provided for our US readers.

** Resources in the United States

NHS Choices logo


From www.nhs.uk





Next Page »